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Jonathan Reed
Jonathan Reed

Results Found: Tangled


With five songs and an orchestra bolstered with a heavy dose of choir, Alan Menken musically narrates the fable of Rapunzel. The results are a classic score that stands on equal ground with the best of his 90s output for Disney. Find out how Menken captured that magic by purchasing Tangled today.




Results found: tangled



For the purposes of heritability estimates, genes and environments can be directly controlled only for plants and some nonhuman animals, and even then, these efforts often fail. In a Science article (Crabbe, Wahlsten, & Dudek, 1999), for example, mice from the same genetic strains were raised in different laboratories under environments rigorously controlled to be as similar as possible. On a number of behavioral tests, however, different laboratories found different results for the same genetic strain, differences sometimes bigger across laboratories than across strains. (The short-term, less-than-precise nature of the tests, such as open field and maze, as contrasted to longer term behavior-analytic operant and respondent assays, makes these results less surprising;3 also see Francis, Szegda, Campbell, Martin, & Insel, 2003.)


As our capacity to collect and store health data is increasing, a new challenge of transforming data into meaningful information for disease monitoring and surveillance has arisen. The aim of this study was to explore the potential of using livestock mortality and antibiotic consumption data as a proxy for detecting disease outbreaks at herd level. Changes in the monthly records of mortality and antibiotic consumption were monitored in Danish swine herds that became positive for porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome (PRRS) and porcine pleuropneumonia. Laboratory serological results were used to identify herds that changed from a negative to a positive status for the diseases. A dynamic linear model with a linear growth component was used to model the data. Alarms about state changes were raised based on forecast errors, changes in the growth component, and the values of the retrospectively smoothed values of the growth component. In all cases, the alarms were defined based on credible intervals and assessed prior and after herds got a positive disease status. The number of herds with alarms based on mortality increased by 3% in the 3 months prior to laboratory confirmation of PRRS-positive herds (Se = 0.47). A 22% rise in the number of weaner herds with alarms based on the consumption of antibiotics for respiratory diseases was found 1 month prior to these herds becoming PRRS-positive (Se = 0.22). For porcine pleuropneumonia-positive herds, a 10% increase in antibiotic consumption for respiratory diseases in sow herds was seen 1 month prior to a positive result (Se = 0.5). Monitoring changes in mortality data and antibiotic consumption showed changes at herd level prior to and in the same month as confirmation from diagnostic tests. These results also show a potential value for using these data streams as part of surveillance strategies.


Herds with at least two data streams (time-series of mortality and antibiotic consumption for any disease group) were considered to be active herds (i.e. herds with mortality records of > 0) and were included in the study. The herds were initially divided into a healthy set and a non-healthy set. For a herd to be considered healthy, it needed to match all of the following criteria: 1) it should be tested for PRRS and porcine pleuropneumonia with at least three laboratory submissions within the study period, 2) it should have a maximum of 12 months between consecutive submissions, and 3) it should have only negative diagnostic serology results for both of the diseases considered in this study.


Our findings suggest that increases on antibiotic consumption and mortality can be found in Danish swine herds prior to, during and after the confirmation of a positive disease status based on serological diagnostic test results. These findings are in concordance with previous studies in which increases of antibiotic usage and mortality were found prior and posterior to the time when swine herds got infected with other infectious diseases, such as post weaning multisystemic wasting syndrome and enzootic pneumonia [18, 19, 46].


Monitoring changes in mortality data and antibiotic consumption (in total and for treatment of respiratory diseases) showed changes (i.e. alarms) at herd level prior to diagnostic test confirmation. These results also show a potential value for using these data streams as a proxy for outbreaks when monitoring diseases as part of surveillance strategies. What data type is most informative for this purpose differs consistently between the three age groups due to differences in typical management and data reporting for these different age groups.


This study will focus on the impact of state occupational licensing on low-income entrepreneurs, and the detrimental effect of unreasonable regulatory barriers. The results should have consequences for any credible weighing of the costs and benefits of keeping the current legal regime that licenses occupations at the state level.


Using the Kauffman Foundation survey, we can derive some insight about the entrepreneurs who fall in the bottom portion of the income spectrum. The approach used here is to isolate in the broader survey the number of respondents who fit the definition of an entrepreneur but also fall within the two lowest- income quintiles by state.8 We can then compare their demographic characteristics to the general population. The results appear in Tables 1 through 3.


Broad-based reform of occupational licensing is a good idea from this perspective. Incremental reforms can help achieve part of this goal. Requiring a review and potential sunset of all occupational licensing laws would put the burden of proof on those who advocate extending them and require them to prove the benefits of the regulations outweigh the costs, which should include the lower level of new business creation that results from these regulations. Over time, it may become more obvious through such a review process that the health and safety regulations have outlived their usefulness, particularly in the face of new technologies. Sunsetting entire classes of occupational licenses could provide some relief to specific sectors.


The median assessed value of the tangled properties ($88,800) is lower than the citywide median of $134,300 not because of the tangled titles but because property values in the neighborhoods where the residences are located are lower than those in other areas of the city. In fact, the values of properties with tangled titles are only 1% lower, on average, than those of other properties on the same block.5


Across the city, 32% of tangled properties are delinquent in paying their real estate taxes, compared with 9% of residential properties citywide. About 39% of tax-delinquent tangled title homes are in payment agreements with the city, a rate of participation higher than the average of 34% among all delinquent residential properties.6


Although publicly available data does not include the characteristics of the households living in homes with tangled titles, the census tracts with higher percentages of tangled titles have lower household incomes and higher poverty rates than tracts with lower percentages of tangled titles. (See Table 2.) Among the other factors that help explain the prevalence of tangled titles in these areas are the inaccessibility of legal services and low property values, sometimes compounded by liens, that limit the financial benefit of clearing the title.


For the group with the smallest percentage of tangled titles, shown in pale yellow in Figure 2, the median household income is relatively high, the poverty rate is relatively low, and home values are $294 per square foot. Nearly two-thirds of these tracts are in Center City.


A rent-to-own agreement goes wrong. The title to a property can become tangled through a failed rent-to-own agreement, a method of home purchase sometimes used by people who are unable to secure a mortgage.13 The buyer agrees to make installment payments over a period of time while living in and caring for the house. The seller agrees to transfer the title to the buyer when the payments are completed. Entering the agreement gives the buyer a legal claim to the property, although the seller remains the record owner for the duration. If the seller fails to transfer a clean title to the buyer after the agreed-upon payments are made, the title becomes tangled.14


The tangled title remedies described in this report can be difficult, if not impossible, for a homeowner to navigate without legal assistance. Hiring an attorney can be prohibitively expensive for some. Low-income individuals who have tangled titles and intend to live in the homes may be able to get free legal help from organizations such as Community Legal Services (CLS), SeniorLAW Center, and Philadelphia Legal Assistance (PLA), or be connected to attorneys working pro bono through Philadelphia VIP.


Those 1,297 additional tangled titles were allocated to the various Census Public Use Microdata Areas (PUMAs) based on both the number of properties in each PUMA with one but not all owners deceased and the rate of other tangled titles in each PUMA. A second round of disaggregation apportioned the PUMA-level estimates to the component tracts in the same manner. Properties were assigned the median value of tangled title homes in that PUMA.


A presumptive positive test result is defined as a patient testing positive for the virus at a local or state level but the result having not yet been confirmed by the CDC. However, CDC confirmation is no longer required, which allows coders to code presumptive positive results as confirmed diagnoses.


While the above seems like a fairly straightforward collection-to-use case, the sheer volume of indicator data turns a single indicator use chain into a tangled ecosystem. In our RDI work alone (limited to three countries, two sectors, and 17 development partners), we identified 750 different agency-level outcome indicators! 041b061a72


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